deduction


deduction
deduction 1 Deduction, abatement, rebate, discount are comparable when they mean an amount subtracted from a gross sum.
Deduction is interchangeable with any of the others but not without some loss in precision.
An abatement is a deduction from a levied tax or impost
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an abatement of the duties levied at the customhouse

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A rebate is an amount deducted and returned after payment either in adjustment of an overcharge or to gain a com-petitive advantage
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a rebate on an income tax

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a rebate on an insurance premium

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A discount is a deduction from an amount owed or a price asked in consideration of a cash or prompt payment
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this bill is subject to 2 percent discount if paid within thirty days

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It also may denote an advance deduction of the amount of interest payable on a loan or note from the time the loan is made or the note purchased until the due date
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the bank credited his account with the proceeds of the note less the discount

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2 inference, conclusion, judgment (see under INFER)
3 Deduction, induction and their corresponding adjectives deductive, inductive are comparable as used in logic to designate forms of reasoning.
Deduction and deductive imply reasoning from premises or propositions antecedently proved or assumed as true or certain and procedure from the general or universal to a particular conclusion; thus, the conclusion that one must die someday is based on the premises that all men are mortal and that one is a man; therefore one infers by deduction or deductive reasoning that one must necessarily be mortal.
Induction and inductive imply reasoning from particular facts to a conclusion that is general or universal in its nature. In its simplest form induction implies a knowledge of every particular and a generalization from these; thus, the conclusion that all of a certain man's books have red bindings is reached by induction or inductive reasoning when one has surveyed his library and has found no exception to this rule. In its more complicated forms, since knowledge of every particular is usually impossible, induction often implies the use of postulates or assumptions which are generally accepted (as the uniformity of nature), more or less tentative conclusions, and constant observation and experiment and reexamination of the evidence. In this sense many of the laws of nature stated in the various sciences are derived by induction, but when these laws are used as premises and become the bases for further inferences, the reasoning becomes deductive.

New Dictionary of Synonyms. 2014.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • déduction — [ dedyksjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1355; lat. deductio I ♦ Action de soustraire une somme d une autre. ⇒ décompte, défalcation, retranchement, soustraction. Faire la déduction des sommes déjà payées. Déduction faite des arrhes versées. Somme qui entre, vient… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • deduction — de·duc·tion n 1: an amount allowed by tax laws to be subtracted from income in order to decrease the amount of income tax due see also internal revenue code in the important laws section compare credit, ex …   Law dictionary

  • Deduction — • An argument or reasoning process, that kind of mediate inference by which from truths already known we advance to a knowledge of other truths necessarily implied in the former; the mental product or result of that process. Also a method, the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Deduction — Déduction Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Deduction — may refer to: in logic: Deductive reasoning, inference in which the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premises Natural deduction, an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it… …   Wikipedia

  • Deduction — De*duc tion, n. [L. deductio: cf. F. d[ e]duction.] 1. Act or process of deducing or inferring. [1913 Webster] The deduction of one language from another. Johnson. [1913 Webster] This process, by which from two statements we deduce a third, is… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • déduction — DÉDUCTION. s. f. Soustraction. On lui a payé tant en déduction du principal. La succession, déduction faite des frais, monte à telle somme. [b]f♛/b] Il signifie aussi, Narration, énumération en détail. Faire une longue déduction de ses raisons,… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • deduction — Deduction. Soustraction. On luy a payé tant en deduction du principal. Il signifie aussi, Narration, enumeration en detail. Faire une longue deduction de ses raisons …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • deduction — deduction, deductive The use of logical rules to arrive at a set of premisses from which certain conclusions must follow. Deduction begins with theory , moves to hypotheses derived from the theory, and then tests hypotheses via prediction and… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • deduction — early 15c., action of deducting, from M.Fr. déduction or directly from L. deductionem (nom. deductio), noun of action from pp. stem of deducere (see DEDUCE (Cf. deduce)). Meaning that which is deducted is from 1540s. As a term in logic, from L.L …   Etymology dictionary


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